Content # Module 2. Physics (Part-66)

## Module 2. Physics (Part-66)

### Duration

100 hours training

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### 1. Matter

• Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;
• Chemical compounds.
• States: solid, liquid and gaseous;
• Changes between states.

### 2.1 Statics

• Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;
• Centre of gravity;
• Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity: tension, compression,shear and torsion;
• Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;
• Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).

### 2.2 Kinetic

• Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion underconstant acceleration (motion under gravity);
• Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifuga l/ centripetalforces);
• Periodic motion: pendular movement;
• Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;
• Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.

### 2.3 Dynamics

2.3.1

• Mass;
• Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy),heat, efficiency;

2.3.2

• Momentum, conservation of momentum;
• Impulse;
• Gyroscopic principles;
• Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).

### 2.4 Fluid dynamics

2.4.1

• Specific gravity and density;

2.4.2

• Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;
• Effects of compressibility on fluids;
• Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, venturi.

### 3. Thermodynamics

3.1

• Temperature: thermometers and temperaturescales:
• Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;
• Heatdefinition.

3.2

• Heat capacity, specific heat;
• Heat transfer: convection, radiation andconduction;
• Volumetric expansion;
• First and second law of thermodynamics;
• Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat atconstant volume and constant pressure, workdone by expanding gas;
• Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;
• Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat ofcombustion.

### 4. Optics (Light)

• Nature of light; speed of light;
• Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflectionby spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses;
• Fibre optics.

### 5. Wave Motion and Sound

• Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interferencephenomena, standing waves;
• Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch andquality, Doppler effect.

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